By: D.F. McKenzie, T.V. Dailey, K.M. Puckett and J. G. Doty
This 2nd edition of the NBCI’s annual “State of the Bobwhite” report provides the most comprehensive assessment ever compiled on the current state of bobwhite conservation in the US. Read More »
By: T. D. SchowalterABSTRACT
Barkbeetles (Coleoptera:Curculionidae:Scolytinae) have been an important historic and current factor affecting pine forest production in the southern United States. Although tree mortality to bark beetles often detracts from forest management goals, the natural role of barkbeetles is canopy opening, thinning, and diversification of stand structure and composition, effects that contribute to some ecosystem services in forests managed for multiple uses. Strategies to prevent barkbeetle outbreaks exploit their sensitivity to host tree spacing and reliance on pheromones to attract sufficient numbers to overwhelm tree defenses. Tree species selection at planting or through selective thinning can favor pine species that are more tolerant of site conditions and resistant to bark beetles. Precommercial or commercial thinning improves tree condition and creates barriers to beetle population growth and spread. Remedial options include salvage harvest, pheromones for trap-out or disruption of host location, and white paint to disrupt the dark silhouette of the tree bole. Given the labor costs and trade-offs among tactics and the marginal profitability of fiber and timber production, harvest in advance of,or salvage harvest after, barkbeetle attack often is the favored management strategy. However, this strategy is not as appropriate in public forests managed for values provided by older, more vulnerable trees. High-value sites for cultural or endangered species protection may require use of more expensive management options. Read More »
By: Marla Downing and Joseph G. O’Brien
ExFor is an Internet-accessible database containing information on forest pests that can be used by workers worldwide. This document describes the guidelines to be followed by contributors to the ExFor database in evaluating exotic forest pests and in submitting background information to the database.
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Regulatory and forest protection agencies, as well as researchers and field workers in forest health and related fields, will benefit from the ready availability of information on a wide variety of pests with potential to become established in North American forests. The information is presented in such a way as to be useful for many purposes. Although the emphasis in the pest risk assessment model developed for this project is on potential establishment and impact, information on pathways for introduction and means of dispersal is provided in the Pest Facts Sheets. It is anticipated that this information will prove useful for the assessment and management of introduced pests, wood products and other commodities from offshore sources.
Go to ExFor
By: USDA Forest Service - Region 8
The purpose of the Southern Region (R8)
Non-Native Invasive Species Strategy is to provide an effective interdisciplinary framework to implement Non-Native Invasive Species (NNIS) management programs. The implementation will include R8 National Forests, State and Private Forestry, and Research and Development programs as applicable.
The goal of the R8 NNIS Program in the South is to reduce, minimize, or eliminate the potential for introduction, establishment, spread, and impact of non-native invasive species across all landscapes and ownerships. The vision for this program is to protect native ecosystems and biodiversity, as well as begin restoration of desired ecological functions or components after NNIS removal. Read More »
By: J.A. Stanturf, W.H. Conner, E.S. Gardiner, C.J. Schweitzer, and A.W. Ezell
Restoring bottomland hardwoods requires attention to site conditions, matching tree species to the site, and controlling weeds and herbivores in order to achieve success.
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By: Joe DiVittorio, Michael Grodowitz, Joe Snow, and Teri Manross Read More »
By: Oregon Sea Grant Read More »
By: Bill Hamrick, Mark Smith, Chris Jaworowski, & Bronson Strickland
Summarizes biology of wild pigs, history of introduction and range of occurence within the U.S., and ecological and economic impacts, with suggestions for management strategies. Read More »
By: National Invasive Species Council
Invasive Species introduced into the United States from around the globe are affecting plant and animal communities on our farms, ranches and coasts; and in our parks, waters, forests, and backyards. As global climate patterns shift, the distribution of species will change, and so will the susceptibility of particular habitats to the impacts of new species introductions. Human activity such as trade, travel and tourism have all increased substantially, increasing the speed and volume of species movement to unprecedented levels. Invasive species are often unintended hitchhikers on cargo and other trade conveyances. Still more species are deliberately introduced as pets, ornamental plants, crops, food, or for recreation, pest control or other purposes. Most nonnative species, including most of our sources of food and fiber, are not harmful; and many are highly beneficial. A small percentage of nonnative species cause great harm to the environment, the economy or human health. Nonnative species that cause harm are collectively known as invasive species. Read More »
By: USDA - Forest Service
Non-native plants, animals, and microorganisms found outside of their natural range can become invasive. While many of these are harmless because they do not reproduce or spread in their new surroundings, other non-native species (NNIS) are considered invasive if they can cause harm to the economy, ecology or human health of the new environment. These species thrive in new areas because they establish relatively quickly, tolerate a wide range of conditions, are easily dispersed, and are no longer limited by the diseases, predators, and parasites that kept their populations in check in their native range. Read More »
By: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Constructing a water garden is a unique and enjoyable way to accent a property. There are many types of aquatic plants and animals commonly used in water gardens including water lettuce, cattails and koi. Many of the popular species are not native to the area or watershed in which they are being planted.
Introduced species are defined as any individual, group, subspecies or population that enters an aquatic ecosystem outside of its historical native range. These species may be plants or animals and may arrive from different countries or from different locations of the same country. Non-native species like goldfish and purple loosestrife, are now prevalent in many regions across the U.S. after first being used as ornamentals. Once established, introduced species may cause ecological and economic problems and can be difficult if not impossible to control or eradicate. Read More »
By: James T. Carlton and Jonathan B. Geller
Transport of entire coastal planktonic assemblages across oceanic barriers to similar habitats renders bays, estuaries and inland waters among the most threatened ecosystems in the world. Read More »
By: Logan Hawkes
Rod Pinkston, a former U.S. Army Master Sergeant and war veteran, may well be one of the world's best and most intuitive wild hog hunters in the world. Read More »
By: Cornell University Cooperative Extension; NYS Department of Environmental Conservation
It is often difficult for landowners to cultivate desirable plant species on their property. An even more frustrating task is keeping unwanted plants at bay. In recent years, exasperated landowners have struggled with invasive plants on their property, with varying results. This fact sheet describes how plants can become invasive and provides control tips for landowners. Read More »
By: C. W. Evans, D. J. Moorhead, C. T. Bargeron and G. K. Douce
Many forest managers are unknowingly introducing and spreading invasive plants on their lands through management practices they implement. These practices, ranging from traditional silvicultural management to wildlife enhancement and land-use conversion practices, all influence invasive plant growth, reproduction, and dispersal. Recognizing and predicting the response of individual species to these practices will enable managers to take steps to prevent or reduce the impact of invasive plants on their land. Many of these species eliminate all productive uses on infested sites and are very expensive to control and/or eradicate. Knowing which invasive plants are common in your region and being able to identify them aids in quickly responding to new threats. Monitoring disturbed areas and proper sanitation of equipment helps prevent new infestations. Issues such as when and how to use prescribed fire and how different invasive plants will respond can be confusing and overwhelming. This publication integrates vegetation management guidelines and control techniques with silvicultural practices, such as prescribed fire, harvest techniques, site preparation, timber stand improvement, and wildlife plantings, in a format that will help the manager understand the relationship of management practices and invasive plants.
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By: James H. Miller, Steven T. Manning, and Stephen F. Enloe
Invasions of nonnative plants into forests of the Southern United States continue to spread and include new species, increasingly eroding forest productivity, hindering forest use and management activities, and degrading diversity and wildlife habitat. This book provides the latest information on how to organize and enact prevention programs, build strategies, implement integrated procedures for management, and proceed towards site rehabilitation and restoration. Effective control prescriptions are provided for 56 nonnative plants and groups currently invading the forests of the 13 Southern States. A companion book, “A Field Guide for the Identification of Invasive Plants in Southern Forests
,” (Miller and others 2010) includes information and images for accurate identification of these invasive plants. Read More »
By: K Gregg Elliott
Only a very small subset of species introduced to an area where they are not native will become invasive. But when the invasion begins, it can be costly. The best way to fight an invasion is to prevent one from happening. Read More »
By: James H. Miller
The southern region is in a crisis. Cogongrass (Imperata cylindria) is a world-class invasive grass and a Federally-listed noxious weed that continues to invade more lands and is widely regarded as the worst invasive threat in the Southern U.S. Since its multiple introductions in the early 20th century, it has spread to infest 1 million acres in Florida and tens of thousands of acres in Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina and Texas.The southern region is in a crisis. Cogongrass (Imperata cylindria) is a world-class invasive grass and a Federally-listed noxious weed that continues to invade more lands and is widely regarded as the worst invasive threat in the Southern U.S. Since its multiple introductions in the early 20th century, it has spread to infest 1 million acres in Florida and tens of thousands of acres in Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina and Texas. Read More »
By: K Gregg Elliott
Feral animals are those that have returned to an untamed state after having been domesticated. Such is the case with almost all the wild pigs in North America. Although some of the truly wild Eurasian or “Russian” boars have been brought to the U.S., they are rare, and most feral hogs descend from livestock or are a hybrid of the two species. Read More »
As many Tennessee producers are aware, cool-season grasses, such as tall fescue and orchardgrass, suffer from poor forage production during the summer months. This has led to the search for cost-effective alternatives to bridge this summer “forage slump.” Native warm-season grasses (NWSG), bermudagrass and summer annuals
are potential alternatives that can provide ample forage during this period.
However, economic analyses of NWSG in the Mid- South are limited to switchgrass, and only then for biofuel production. The Center for Native Grasslands Management has developed a Web-based, interactive, decision-support tool to examine various scenarios associ- ated with summer forage production. This tool can be used to examine the impacts of fuel cost, seed cost and planting rates, herbicide cost and application rates, and fertilizer price and application rates on the economics of grazing and haying NWSG, bermudagrass and summer annuals. The tool is based on UT budgets developed for forages (http://economics.ag.utk.edu/budgets.html). Using output from this decision-support tool and January 2011 current prices (Table 1), this publication offers insight into the economic implications of several inputs and outputs of NWSG as a forage in the Mid-South. Seed, fertilizers, her- bicides and fuel costs may vary greatly over time, so this publication is meant to serve only as a guide.
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Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) is an invasive, non-native grass which occurs in the southeastern United States. A pest in 73 countries and considered to be one to the "Top 10 Worst Weeds in the World", cogongrass affects pine productivity and survival, wildlife habitat, recreation, native plants, fire behavior, site management costs and more. Cogongrass has several common names, including japgrass, Japanese bloodgrass, Red Baron or speargrass. Learn more from the Mississippi Forestry Commission Read More »
Bats, still a required decor component for Halloween, are increasingly recognized as the important creatures that they are. Bats are important predators and pollinators in ecosystems throughout the world. The benefits they provide humans are substantial - both in terms of controlling insect pests and pollinating economically important crops. Ecosystem services are the benefits that humans obtain from ecosystems that enhance their well-being. As reviewed here, bats provide many ecosystem services
. Humans derive direct benefits from bats as food, guano for fertilizer, and through contributions to medicine and culture. Perhaps more significantly, yet much more difficult to quantify, humans derive indirect benefits from bats through arthropod suppression, forest regeneration, and maintenance via seed dispersal and pollination of a wide variety of ecologically and economically important plants. In turn, the contribution of these services by bats to healthy, functioning ecosystems provides additional benefits to humans by supporting vital regulatory processes such as climate regulation, nutrient cycling, water filtration, and erosion control.
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By: Chris Demers, Alan Long and Patrick Minogue
Provides instructions for artificial regeneration, site prep, seedings and planting to re-establish longleaf pine. The guidelines conclude, “Longleaf pine has many desirable characteristics for landowners who have multiple-use forest management objectives. On appropriate sites, and with careful attention to detail during the regeneration phase, it is possible to enjoy the versatility of this species without compromising growth rates.” Read More »
According to the US Fish and Wildlife Service, endemic species are native species that are confined to a certain region or having a comparatively restricted distribution. For example, the Joshua Tree is endemic to the Mojave Desert. In other words, endemics, wherever they are located, are unique to their region. In general, the greater the isolation or specialized nature of the habitat, the more numerous the endemics. Thus, according to Britannica Encyclopedia online, species on remote oceanic islands tend to be almost 100% endemic. Read More »
Invasions of nonnative plants into southern forests continue to go largely unchecked and only partially monitored. Small forest openings, forest road right-of-ways, and areas under and beside forest canopies are often occupied by invasive nonnative plants. These infestations increasingly erode forest productivity, hindering forest use and management activities, degrading diversity and wildlife habitat. Often called nonnative, exotic, nonindigenous, alien, or noxious weeds, nonnative invasive plants occur as trees, shrubs, vines, grasses, ferns, and forbs. Some have been introduced into this country accidentally, but most were brought here as ornamentals or for livestock forage. These robust plants arrived without their natural predators of insects, diseases,and animals that tend to keep native plants in natural balance. Many have hybridized and undergone plant breeding to become more aggressive, predator resistant and resilient, drought tolerant, and cold hardy. Now, they increase across the landscape with little opposition beyond the control and reclamation measures applied by landowners, managers, and agencies on individual land holdings. An increased awareness of the threat has resulted in growing networks of concerned individuals, agencies, governments, and companies aimed at stopping plant invasions across landscapes and restoring formerly infested lands. Read More »